Automatic fingerprint identification system is a process of automatically comparing one or more unknown fingerprints with the database. The law enforcement agencies mainly use automatic fingerprint identification system to identify suspected crimes or separate the suspect from other unresolved cases.
AFIS is a biometric identification (ID) method, which uses digital imaging technology to obtain, store and analyze fingerprint data. The living fingerprint image can be collected by a special fingerprint acquisition instrument. At present, the main types of fingerprint acquisition instruments are living optical, capacitive and pressure-sensitive.
The basic functions of fingerprint automatic identification system are: fingerprint image input - fingerprint image processing - storage; fingerprint image input - fingerprint image processing - comparison. For any automatic fingerprint identification system, automatic database building and fingerprint comparison are essential basic functions.
The automatic fingerprint identification system has the following characteristics：
1. Efficient and accurate.
The core of fingerprint automatic identification system is efficient and accurate fingerprint automatic processing and identification algorithm. The accuracy of feature extraction and comparison determines the quality of the whole system, and efficient processing and query determines the performance of the system.
2. Practicability and ease of use.
The practicability of the system is reflected in whether the workflow of the system is closely combined with the actual business needs and the user's management experience. The ease of use of the system is reflected in the degree of automation of the system and whether the interactive operation is friendly and convenient. Simplicity, practicality and complete functions are the characteristics of a good fingerprint automatic identification system.
3. Optimized system structure.
Flexible and efficient system structure should be able to meet the growing business needs, such as library capacity, processing and comparison speed, network interconnection, interconnection with other business systems and changes in working mode. At the same time, the optimized system structure has security, scalability and good performance price ratio, which can effectively reduce the cost and maximize the protection of user investment. The main technologies of system structure optimization include: object-oriented technology, partial processing, parallel processing, client / server structure and so on.
4. Networking and large storage capacity.
With the rapid development of information technology, network and large database capacity are the development direction of automatic fingerprint identification system. It is the only way to realize data sharing among systems, regions, countries and countries, improve system efficiency, change working mode and give full play to the role of automatic fingerprint identification system.
As a form of personal identification, fingerprint is an improved method, which has been proved in practice and accepted by the court. AFIS itself has existed for more than 25 years. The FBI's integrated automatic fingerprint identification system (IAFIS) has many fingerprint sets collected in the United States.
European Union legislation now requires European police agencies to open up AFIS to each other to improve information sharing to combat terrorism and investigate cross-border crime. The U.S. government is leading the innovation of AFIS technology by proposing to add multi-mode biometric technology including face, iris, face, voice and even tattoo recognition to its existing integrated automatic fingerprint identification system.